Volume 12, Jul 2021

Table of Contents


Special Topic


Developing and Evaluating a Scoring Rubric for Argumentative Essays: A Module-Based Approach

Author Kayo TSUJI
Keywords rubric, module, writing, argumentative essay, performance criteria, performance-level descriptions

Explanatory Note

Rubrics have received increasing attention as assessment indicators to effectively evaluate students’ complex performance and as an instructional tool to promote students’ learning. Considering the positive effects of rubrics, the author attempts to develop an argumentative essay rubric. This study has two purposes: first, to design a scoring rubric incorporating students’ writing challenges, and second, to evaluate the interrater reliability and validity of the rubric as an evaluation indicator. When using a rubric as a guide for improving text quality, it is necessary to set performance criteria and a clear task description as students need to know how and where to focus in an essay. As Fujishiro’s (2009, 2011) modular writing technique is one effective approach to writing, the rubric should be developed based on this framework. The fundamentals of the modular approach support the decision of multiple criteria, that is, logic, clarity, and English. Logic emphasizes consistency between the respective modules, while clarity requires the inclusion of the necessary 5W1H information in each module. A third criterion, English, is relevant as the rubric applies to English-language texts. Each criterion includes the focus of evaluation and a six-level task description ranging from ungradable to excellent. Prior to educational use in the classroom, the validity and interrater reliability of the Module-based Writing Rubric were measured. Three evaluators rated 40 students’ English written texts with the rubric and the Independent Writing Rubrics (Educational Testing Service, 2004). The validity of the rubric was measured for the 40 texts by comparing the value obtained by an evaluator for the Module-based Writing Rubric to the evaluator’s value for the Independent Writing Rubrics. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient for each performance criterion was calculated to confirm the degree of consistency among evaluators. The results confirm the validity and reliability of the newly developed rubric.

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This article is a translated version of Tsuji’s 2019 study. It was published in the Journal of Japan Association for College and University Education, 40 (2), when the author was affiliated with the Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University. The information on this practical report is as follows: Tsuji, K. (2019). Girongata essei o hyōkasuru rūburikku no kōan to kentō: Mojūru o ishizue to shita raitingu gihō ni chakumokushite [Developing module-focused scoring rubrics for argumentative essays]. Journal of Japan Association for College and University Education, 40 (2), 64-71. Note that the English title and abstract of the present article have been partially revised to achieve better fluency.

Special Topic

Introduction: Military Affairs and Modern Society in the Media: Journals, Advertising Design, Public Relations and Museums

Author Masafumi KITAMURA
Keywords media, military history, World War I

Article 1. Prussian Military Reforms and the Berliner Landwehr in Local News during the Wars of Liberation, 1813-1815

Author Satomi TAKAOKA
Keywords Prussian military reforms, Landwehr, Wars of Liberation, Berlinische Nachrichten


The Prussian military reforms introduced two new military systems—the Landwehr (1813) and a universal conscription system (1814)—with the principle that all able-bodied adult men were obligated to perform military service, which continued until the end of World War I. Before the Prussian military reforms, the Canton system called inhabitants of Prussia into military service from 1733 to 1813, while the inhabitants of many cities, including citizens, were exempted from military service. In addition, nobles obtained exemption from military service but joined the military as officers. Eventually, the Prussian army by and large mixed peasants and nobles in the late 18th century. The Prussians’ defeat of Napoleon and the French army in 1806 allowed noble military reformers to transform the Canton system. Consequently, the King of Prussia abolished exemption from military service and introduced two new military systems, based on participation by all inhabitants. These top-down military reforms by the noble officers were often considered ‘reforms from above’ and were one of the important factors in victory and the unification of Germany, according to major historical materials, such as Prussian government records and the memoranda of reformers. However, this study reviews the local Landwehr through a survey of articles in a local municipal newspaper, the Berlinische Nachrichten. During the Wars of Liberation (1813–1815), the municipalities of each city and Kreis were bound by duty to recruit their inhabitants for the Landwehr without exemption from military service and to obtain a budget for their Landwehr. Therefore, the Berlinische Nachrichten printed several articles related to the Landwehr in Berlin. In particular, this study focuses on recruiting notices, financial reports, and contributions notices for the Berliner Landwehr published in this newspaper, and it discusses the local Landwehr as one part of the Prussian military reforms.

Article 2. Civil Society and the Army from Family Magazines during the German Empire: Army Representation in the Family Magazine Die Gartenlaube and Daheim

Author Yui NAGAO
Keywords German Empire, Family magazine, Die Gartenlaube, Daheim


“German Sonderweg” has been one of the most significant themes in the study of modern German history. Before the 1980s, many researchers viewed the modern societies of Britain and France, which gave birth to mature democratic societies, as representative examples of societies that had taken the “normal path”, and developed a critique of modern German society, which failed to form a democratic unified state before and after the war.

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However, this view of history, which was criticized in the 1980s by British social historians, was also reviewed in Germany after the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany. The unification of Germany in 1990 meant that although the country had once followed a unique path, there is now an emphasis on the recognition that the German people have reunited under a state system that shares the same values as those of the Western democratic countries. In this process, the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848 and the following revolutions have been recognized as the “unfinished revolution”, to show that it was the starting point of the democratic movement in the history of modern Germany.

The purpose of this article is to delve into the multi-layered nature and transformation of German civil society from the establishment of the Reich to the Imperial period. For this purpose, I use the family magazines Die Gartenlaube and Daheim. These magazines, founded in the latter part of the 19th century, had a clear intent towards enlightenment and growing the civil society. Because of this, the relationship between nationalism and civil society was strongly reflected in their articles. Also, those relationships had a transition over the periods most clearly illustrated in an article on the “Army”. This paper will discuss the changes in German civil society during the Second Reich, focusing on the representation of the army in those articles, and how it has changed over the years.

Article 3. Public Relations Exercises of Firma Krupp in Japan at the End of the 19th Century: The Shooting test and Nichi-Doku-Kōgyō-Kōkoku

Author Mitsuhiro MAEDA
Keywords Krupp, Representative, Japan, Advertising campaign


This article examines the public relations campaigns in Japan of the German iron-steel company Fried. Krupp at the end of the 19th century, especially focusing on entering an international shooting test and on making and publishing an advertisement in the form of a Japanese-German Industrial Catalogue 『日独工業広告』 in Japan. Both public relations exercises were accomplished through the activities of “representatives” of Krupp in Japan. First, the entry of Krupp in an international shooting test was realized through the negotiatory activities of A. Schinzinger, a military technology representative of Krupp. Second, there was the publication of Krupp advertisements in 『日独工業広告』 published by Max Nößler. These demonstrated the useful qualities and performance of Krupp products. Both public relations exercises, undertaken by Krupp’s “representatives” in Japan, were carried out in order that Krupp could penetrate the Japanese war-materials market, which was dominated by business competitors in England and France at that time, and maintain Krupp’s market-share in Japan. Thereby Krupp succeeded in establishing a favorable reputation in Japan for its war products.

Article 4. Public Relations of the Japanese Navy in the Prewar Period: The Case of Boarding a Warship

Author Shinpei NAKAJIMA
Keywords Japan, Prewar period, Navy, PR, Boarding a warship


In this paper, the interaction between the military and the people in modern Japanese society is discussed from the perspective of communication, using the concept of PR. As a specific research subject, this paper focuses on the boarding of a warship conducted by the Navy for the purpose of public relations in the prewar period.

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From May 1919, the Japanese Navy allowed civilians to board a warship for PR purposes. The main targets were local officials, school teachers, and members of the Seinendan (青年団) and Zaigo-Gunjinkai (在郷軍人会). The members of the Seinendan of an age to include Navy volunteers, and local officials and school teachers were in a position to guide the Seinendan. At a time when the number of Navy volunteers was on the decline, the Navy began allowing boarding a warship as a way to disseminate Navy ideas in order to gain the understanding and cooperation of society.

After that, the allowing of civilians to board warships expanded rapidly. There was a cooperative relationship with private organizations. The boarding of a warship, which was requested by the Kaikoku-Shonensha (海国少年社), which was working to spread the idea of ​​maritime affairs, was very successful in guiding schools around the country and being reporting on in newspapers. Since then, the Navy, with the voluntary cooperation of the people, has carried out boardings and tours of warships involving thousands of citizens throughout the country.

The boarding of a warship in the prewar period was a product of two-way efforts by the Navy authorities, who expected an increase in Navy volunteers, and various organizations that promoted maritime ideas for some purpose. The results from these analyzes indicate that the boarding of a warship served as PR aimed at building good relationships between military organizations and society.

Article 5. Museum as Propaganda: War Exhibitions in Britain during the First World War

Author Toshiko HAYASHIDA
Keywords First World War, Gender, Museum, War exhibition, Britain


Research on the commemoration of the First World War (WWI) has grown considerably since the 1990s, with a boom in war memories. War historians have focused on military museums, television programmes, films, and war tribunals that emerged after WWI as ‘theatres of memory’. This article focuses on the Imperial War Museum (the IWM), which was opened to the public in 1920, as one of the ‘theatres of memory’ in Britain. This paper examines the characteristics of the multiple functions of the IWM as media of propaganda.

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The IWM was not just an archive to record and commemorate WWI but an open space for the people who fought a total war. It was a means to support wounded soldiers and the families of the war dead, as well as a means of boosting morale. It was a place where respect was paid to the war dead and a space to acknowledge them officially. Various war exhibitions were held to raise awareness of wartime organisations and promote recruitment when many of them were short of workers. When the IWM was planned, it was acknowledged by the committee that exhibitions of women’s work were indispensable in depicting various aspects of a total war and highlighting the contribution of prominent women, such as female doctors or soldiers; however, they were described within conventional gender norms. Those who lived during this era experienced the war in their own way, but individual experiences acquired meaning only after they were situated within the overall framework. The IWM was an instrument to locate various war experiences in the ‘history of WWI’ and give them meaning. A certain historical perspective was presented by exhibitions into which various war efforts were integrated.

Article 6. The Influence of Early 20th-Century German Advertising Design on the Modernization of Japanese Advertising from 1921 to 1922

Author Yukie TAKEUCHI
Keywords Military posters from World War I, Modernization of Japanese advertising, Japanese posters, German advertising design


This paper is concerned with the awakening of modern advertising design in Japan from 1921 to 1922. An exhibition of Western military posters from World War I, held in Japan in 1921, made the Japanese realize that posters were not merely pictures but constitute a medium of communication. Researchers with different specialties became interested in this new medium and wrote about it in a catalogue published after the exhibition. This was the beginning of a public forum in which experts from different fields discussed advertising. This forum continues to this day. Art scholars pointed out that the Japanese were moved by German posters, especially those created by German Expressionist artists at the end of the war.

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The following year, an artists’ group published a full-color poster book. It included many German posters, not only from wartime, but also commercial posters from peacetime before the war. This book’s new direction inspired a new era of Japanese posters with a rational and message-driven design.

Editorial Note

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