Volume 11, Jul 2020

Table of Contents


Research Note


Author Masafumi KITAMURA
Keywords Bruno Taut, modernism architecture, Siedlung, Japanese culture, city planning, transcultural architect

Explanatory Note

In 2008, six Berlin settlements were registered as “Berlin Modernism Housing Estates” and added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites on the grounds that they had considerably influenced housing development thereafter. These settlements were: the garden city Falkenberg, Estate Schillerpark, Horse Shoe Estate (Hufeisensiedlung), Carl Legien, Weißstadt, and Siemensstadt. Of these, only Falkenberg predates the First World War, while the others were constructed during the time of the Weimar Republic. The first four were designed by Bruno Taut (1880-1938), who was forced to go into exile in Japan and Turkey, when the Nazi regime was born in 1933. In Japan he could not work as an architect.

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At present, there are two avenues of research on Taut’s work; namely, trends in his native Germany, and those in Japan. They have more or less developed independently of each other. This paper will give an overview of Taut research trends in Germany, and corresponding efforts in Japan. Surveying both research trends will allow an organic correlation and identification of internationally important questions.

This paper was published in the academic journal Shirin or Journal of History, vol. 100, no. 3, 2017, published by the Society of Historical Research in Kyoto, Japan.

Research Note

The Use of Lakes as Natural Resources in Late Medieval England: A Study on Lake Windermere, the Lake District

Author Haruka KATO
Keywords medieval England, natural resources, Lake Windermere, fishing, transportation


This is a case study on how a lake was used as a natural resource by residents and lords in late medieval England. The subject of this case study is Lake Windermere in the Lake District.

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The studies of rural society in medieval England have chiefly focused on areas where crop production was the main livelihood, and areas that were not suitable for cultivation were set aside as the ‘marginal’ areas. However, in recent years, interest in the marginal areas, specifically the use of natural resources, has been growing.

In the north-western upland, one of the marginal areas of medieval England, the land was considered unsuitable for cultivation: hilly and far-reaching terrain with a cold and rainy climate. The present author conducted a case study on the livelihood of Windermere Manor in the north-western upland. In this study, as an extension of the present author’s previous case study, we will analyze some aspects of how Windermere Lake, which belonged to Windermere Manor and was the largest lake in the Lake District, was used by residents, including farmers, and lords.

In Chapter One, we discuss the layout of Lake Windermere and Windermere Manor. In Chapter Two, we introduce the holders as well as the usage fees of the fishing right of Lake Windermere. In Chapter Three, we discuss how and by whom fishing on Lake Windermere was conducted. In Chapter Four, we examine the role of Bowness, the largest pier on Lake Windermere, in the late medieval period.

In conclusion, we highlight the following two points regarding the use of Lake Windermere by residents and lords: 1) the fishery on the lake was led by leading gentry in the region with the fishery rights, and most of the fish might have been sold nearby, 2) Lake Windermere was also used to transport people and goods around the lake, not just to Windermere Manor.

Editorial Note

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